This study was the first reported attempt to lyophilize nucleated somatic cells for possible cloning applications. At the time, most efforts exploring potential applications for lyophilization were focused on long term storage of white blood cells.


We freeze dried RBC using directional freezing in solution of Dextran and EGCG in the presence of E.coli bacteria and West Nile virus.

Principal findings

100% of survival was found for the E.coli bacterium and 100% survival was found to the west Nile virus.


Our freeze drying technology can preserved in the dry state bacteria and virus.


Confidential research.

Supporting information

Figure 1: Freeze-dried red blood cells with West Nile virus maintaining >50% morphology after recovery